My Research

My research asks how planners can ensure that transit reforms meet the needs of vulnerable people, including low-income people, women, and people with disabilities.  My dissertation is a mixed-methods study that compares the cases of TransMilenio, a pioneering BRT system in Bogotá and Soacha, Colombia, and Bus Sariri, an attempted bus reform in El Alto, Bolivia.

Using mixed-methods data collection, the study demonstrates and empirically compares tools policymakers can use to improve their understanding of users’ diverse needs. It identifies best practices anchored in the lived realities of Latin American transit users and planners.  A practical guide to implementing these tools can be downloaded in the Working Paper section below.

In addition to looking at specific policy tools, I analyze the underlying barriers to communication between planners and community members.  I focus on dissonance between stakeholders’ visions of what transportation is, what it should be, and how to identify the best path for change.

Picaday - 33

Working Paper

Kash, G. (2017).  “Guide to Social Assessment of Transit User Needs in Sustainable Transportation Projects.”

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Kash, G. and D. Hidalgo (2014).  “The Promises and Challenges of Integrating Public Transportation in Bogota, Colombia.” Public Transport (March 13). 
doi:10.1007/s12469-013-0083-7.  Manuscript here.
The final publication is available at

Kash, G.  (2013).  “Open Versus Closed: Effects of Question Form on Transit Rider Expressions of Policy Preferences in Arequipa, Peru.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2354: 51-58. doi: 10.3141/2354-06

Online Publications via TheCityFix:

In photos: Cable car system takes transport to new heights in Bolivia

Community Voices: Talking Transit in Arequipa, Perú.

Community Voices: Integrated Public Transport in Bogotá.

Photo Essay: A Tale of Two Bus Systems in Bogotá.

Selected Conference Papers

Kash, G. “Studying participation in its absence: focus groups as a laboratory for public involvement in transit planning in Colombia and Bolivia.” Accepted for presentation at the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning 2016 Annual Conference, November 2016.

Kash, G. and R. McCoy. “Transportation That Treats Us Well: Mobility Needs of Transit Users with Disabilities in La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia.” Presented at the 94th Transportation Research Board meeting, January 2015.

Kash, G. “Gendered Perspectives on Transit Crime in Arequipa, Perú and Bogotá, Colombia.” Presented at the 93rd Transportation Research Board Meeting, January 2014.

Kash, G.  “The Unintended Regional Consequences of Integrating Intracity Bus Service: The Case of Bogotá and Soacha, Colombia.”  Presented at the 20th National Conference on Rural Public and Intercity Bus Transportation, October 2012.

Kash, G.  and N. McDonald.  “Travel Behavior and Perceived Barriers to Walking More Frequently: An Analysis of the Relationship Between Mode Choice and Attitudes in California.”  Presented at the 91st Transportation Research Board Meeting, January 2012.

Kash, G.  and D. Hidalgo.  “User Perception of Bogotá’s Integrated Public Transport System: Trends and Implications for Program Implementation.”  Presented at the 91st Transportation Research Board Meeting, January 2012.